《明報》名人教英文

令人興奮

2011年10月26日 《明報》 名人教英文

前兩期談了過去分詞後綴-ly 構成的副詞。讀者大概知道,許多動詞的現在分詞(presentparticiple)也可以用作形容詞,並且也可以後綴-ly 而成為副詞。

例如動詞excite 的兩個分詞excited 和exciting 都是形容詞,並有相應的副詞excitedly和excitingly,前者是「興奮地」,例如:"Shetold us the story excitedly";後者是「令人興奮地」,例如:"This idea is excitingly new",這想法新穎得令人興奮。

動詞excite 的意思是使人興奮; 形容詞exciting 用來形容使人興奮的事,而excited 則形容對某事感到興奮的人。類似的現在和過去分詞有不少,如:

interest:使人感興趣,interesting:有趣的(事),interested:感興趣的(人);

embarrass:令人尷尬,embarrassing:令人尷尬的( 事) , embarrassed: 尷尬的(人);

surprise:使人詫異,surprising:令人詫異的(事),surprised:感詫異的(人);

confuse:使人感混亂,confusing:使人混亂的(事),confused:感到混亂的(人);disappoint:令人失望,disappointing:令人失望的( 事) , disappointed: 感到失望的(人);等等。

以上這些例子中以-ing 和-ed 為後綴的形容詞,都可以加上-ly 成為副詞。由於-ing 的形容詞一般用來形容「事」,相應的副詞也同樣以「事」為修飾對象, 可用作修飾整句的sentential adverb,例如:

1. Interestingly, all members in the team were born in the same month.

2. Embarrassingly, I mistook the visitor for someone else.

3. Surprisingly, the incumbent was defeated by a relatively unknown challenger.

這幾句裏開頭的副詞,修飾的都不是句中的一個字,而是整句所表達的事。不過,這些副詞也可用作adverbs of manner,修飾動詞、形容詞和其他副詞:

4. He doodled interestingly in the air as he spoke.

5. His popularity rating was embarrassingly low.

6. She performed surprisingly well.

相應的過去分詞生成的副詞interestedly、embarrassedly,surprisedly 等,比較少用;人們寧可用adverb phrases(副詞短語)來表達「感興趣地」、「尷尬地」、「詫異地」等意思,如:

7. She looked at the picture with interest.(不說interestedly)

8. He flushed with embarrassment when herealised his mistake. ( 不說embarrassedly)

9. Everybody looked at her in surprise. ( 不說surprisedly)

20111026

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